Information on research referred to in the Parachute infographics series.
- Most collisions within school zones occur at midblock locations versus intersections.
SOURCE: Warsh, J., Rothman, L., Slater, M., Steverango, C., Howard, A. (2009). Are school zones effective? An examination of motor vehicle versus child pedestrian crashes near schools. http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/15/4/226.short
- Presence of sidewalks and multi-use walkways increases active transportation.
SOURCE: Oluyomi, A. O. et al. (2014). Parental safety concerns and active school commute: correlates across multiple domains in the home-to-school journey. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 11, 32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975836/
- Speed humps are effective at reducing child pedestrian collisions. Other examples include traffic circles or pinch points.
SOURCE: Rothman, L., Macpherson, A., Buliung, R., Macarthur, C., To, T., Larsen, K., Howard, A. (2015). Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534084/
- Pedestrians have been shown to have a 90% chance of survival when struck by a car travelling at 30 km/h or below, but less than 50% chance of surviving an impact at 45 km/h.
SOURCE: World report on road traffic injury prevention (http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention), World Health Organization
- Dangerous driving behaviours in and around student drop-offs increase the risk of pedestrian motor vehicle collisions.
SOURCE: Panel discussion on traffic safety in school zones. Gail Robertson, Road Safety Amabassador, Insurance Hunter.ca, Linda Rothman, Hospital for Sick Children, Jennifer Reynolds, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Family, and Police Constable Hugh G. Smith from the Toronto Police Service, Traffic Services.
- The “what teens think” quotes/messages are based on a qualitative study by CCSA to examine what common misconceptions are held by Canadian youth about cannabis and its harms: McKiernan, A., & Fleming, K. (2017) Canadian Youth Perceptions on Cannabis, Ottawa, Ont.: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
- "Cannabis doubles the risk of being in a serious crash."
SOURCE: Cannabis, Driving and Implications for Youth: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.
- "Cannabis can reduce your ability to concentrate..."
SOURCE: Drug-Impaired Driving in Canada: Educator Toolkit: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse
- "Nearly one-third of drivers who die in a crash test positive for cannabis."
SOURCE: Woodall, K.L., Chow, B.L., Lauwers, A., Cass, D. (2015). Toxicological findings in fatal motor vehicle collisions in Ontario, Canada: a one-year study. Journal of Forensic Science, 60(3), 669-74.
- "Police report nearly 3,000 drug-impaired riving incidents per year."
SOURCE: Impaired driving in Canada, 2015: Statistics Canada
SOURCE for all items: Jermakian, J. S. (2011). Crash Avoidance Potential of Four Passenger Vehicle Technologies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43(3), 732-740.
- "2+ 1 roads with a cable barrier can reduce fatal collisions and serious injuries by 55%"
SOURCE: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (2003). Application of European 2+1 Roadway Designs. Research Results Digest, 275, 1-31.
- "Roundabouts can reduce the risk of fatal crashes by 50-70%"
SOURCES: Elvik, R. (2003). Effects on Road Safety of Converting Intersections to Roundabouts: Review of Evidence from Non-U.S. Studies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1847,
Elvik, R. (2017). Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis Prevention 99 (Pt A), 364-371.
- "Street lighting at rural intersections can reduce night-time crashes by 25-40%"
SOURCE: Preston, H., & Schoenecker, T. (1999). Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections (Report No. 1999-17). Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul MN. Retrieved from http://www.lrrb.org/media/reports/199917.pdf
- "Rumble strips can reduce run-off-road collisions by up to 36%"
SOURCE: Longitudinal Rumble Strips and Stripes on 2-Lane Roads - Proven Safety Countermeasures. (2014). U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved from https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/fhwa_sa_12_008.cfm
This infographic uses the definition for rural roads provided by Transport Canada and the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA), including:
(a) primary or secondary highways, as well as local roads, or
(b) a speed limit at the collision site exceeding 60 km/h.
In Alberta, New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan “urban” includes any area within the corporate boundaries of a city, town, village or hamlet and “rural” includes any area outside of what is defined as “urban.”
- "Protected bike lanes can reduce vehicle-bicycle crashes resulting in injuries by as much as 90%"
- "Advance stop lines can increase the likelihood of drivers yielding to pedestrians crossing by approximately 60%"
- "Pedestrian/raised refuge islands: can reduce vehicle-pedestrian crashes by 46%"
- "Protected left-turns can reduce left-turn collisions by up to 99%"