Infographic References

Information on research referred to in the Parachute infographics series.

 

June 2018

Safe Schools

  • Most collisions within school zones occur at midblock locations versus intersections.
    SOURCE:
    Warsh, J., Rothman, L., Slater, M., Steverango, C., Howard, A. (2009). Are school zones effective? An examination of motor vehicle versus child pedestrian crashes near schools. http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/15/4/226.short

 

  • Presence of sidewalks and multi-use walkways increases active transportation.
    SOURCE: Oluyomi, A. O. et al. (2014). Parental safety concerns and active school commute: correlates across multiple domains in the home-to-school journey. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 11, 32. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975836/

 

  • Speed humps are effective at reducing child pedestrian collisions. Other examples include traffic circles or pinch points.
    SOURCE: Rothman, L., Macpherson, A., Buliung, R., Macarthur, C., To, T., Larsen, K., Howard, A. (2015). Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534084/

 

  • Pedestrians have been shown to have a 90% chance of survival when struck by a car travelling at 30 km/h or below, but less than 50% chance of surviving an impact at 45 km/h.
    SOURCE: World report on road traffic injury prevention (http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention), World Health Organization

 

  • Dangerous driving behaviours in and around student drop-offs increase the risk of pedestrian motor vehicle collisions.
    SOURCE: Panel discussion on traffic safety in school zones. Gail Robertson, Road Safety Amabassador, Insurance Hunter.ca, Linda Rothman, Hospital for Sick Children, Jennifer Reynolds, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Family, and Police Constable Hugh G. Smith from the Toronto Police Service, Traffic Services. 
    https://helpwevegotkids.com/national/article/parenting_101/school-zone-traffic-safety/

 

 

 

 

SOURCE for all items: Jermakian, J. S. (2011). Crash Avoidance Potential of Four Passenger Vehicle Technologies. Accident Analysis & Prevention43(3), 732-740.


 

  • "Roundabouts can reduce the risk of fatal crashes by 50-70%"
    SOURCES: Elvik, R. (2003). Effects on Road Safety of Converting Intersections to Roundabouts: Review of Evidence from Non-U.S. Studies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1847,

Elvik, R. (2017). Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis Prevention 99 (Pt A), 364-371.

 

  • "Street lighting at rural intersections can reduce night-time crashes by 25-40%"
    SOURCE: Preston, H., & Schoenecker, T. (1999). Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections (Report No. 1999-17). Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul MN. Retrieved from http://www.lrrb.org/media/reports/199917.pdf

 

Note:

This infographic uses the definition for rural roads provided by Transport Canada and the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA), including:

(a) primary or secondary highways, as well as local roads, or

(b) a speed limit at the collision site exceeding 60 km/h.

In Alberta, New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan “urban” includes any area within the corporate boundaries of a city, town, village or hamlet and “rural” includes any area outside of what is defined as “urban.”


  • "Protected bike lanes can reduce vehicle-bicycle crashes resulting in injuries by as much as 90%"
  • "Advance stop lines can increase the likelihood of drivers yielding to pedestrians crossing by approximately 60%"
  • "Pedestrian/raised refuge islands: can reduce vehicle-pedestrian crashes by 46%" 

SOURCE: B.C. Community road safety toolkit resource kit module 1: Protecting people who walk and cycle

 

  • "Protected left-turns can reduce left-turn collisions by up to 99%"

SOURCE: Halton active transportation master plan 2015: Design toolbox