Infographic References

Information on research referred to in the Parachute infographics series.


June 2018

Safe Schools

  • Most collisions within school zones occur at midblock locations versus intersections.
    Warsh, J., Rothman, L., Slater, M., Steverango, C., Howard, A. (2009). Are school zones effective? An examination of motor vehicle versus child pedestrian crashes near schools.


  • Presence of sidewalks and multi-use walkways increases active transportation.
    SOURCE: Oluyomi, A. O. et al. (2014). Parental safety concerns and active school commute: correlates across multiple domains in the home-to-school journey. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 11, 32.


  • Speed humps are effective at reducing child pedestrian collisions. Other examples include traffic circles or pinch points.
    SOURCE: Rothman, L., Macpherson, A., Buliung, R., Macarthur, C., To, T., Larsen, K., Howard, A. (2015). Installation of speed humps and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions in Toronto, Canada: a quasi-experimental study.


  • Pedestrians have been shown to have a 90% chance of survival when struck by a car travelling at 30 km/h or below, but less than 50% chance of surviving an impact at 45 km/h.
    SOURCE: World report on road traffic injury prevention (, World Health Organization


  • Dangerous driving behaviours in and around student drop-offs increase the risk of pedestrian motor vehicle collisions.
    SOURCE: Panel discussion on traffic safety in school zones. Gail Robertson, Road Safety Amabassador, Insurance, Linda Rothman, Hospital for Sick Children, Jennifer Reynolds, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Family, and Police Constable Hugh G. Smith from the Toronto Police Service, Traffic Services.





SOURCE for all items: Jermakian, J. S. (2011). Crash Avoidance Potential of Four Passenger Vehicle Technologies. Accident Analysis & Prevention43(3), 732-740.


  • "Roundabouts can reduce the risk of fatal crashes by 50-70%"
    SOURCES: Elvik, R. (2003). Effects on Road Safety of Converting Intersections to Roundabouts: Review of Evidence from Non-U.S. Studies. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1847,

Elvik, R. (2017). Road safety effects of roundabouts: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis Prevention 99 (Pt A), 364-371.


  • "Street lighting at rural intersections can reduce night-time crashes by 25-40%"
    SOURCE: Preston, H., & Schoenecker, T. (1999). Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections (Report No. 1999-17). Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul MN. Retrieved from



This infographic uses the definition for rural roads provided by Transport Canada and the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators (CCMTA), including:

(a) primary or secondary highways, as well as local roads, or

(b) a speed limit at the collision site exceeding 60 km/h.

In Alberta, New Brunswick, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan “urban” includes any area within the corporate boundaries of a city, town, village or hamlet and “rural” includes any area outside of what is defined as “urban.”

  • "Protected bike lanes can reduce vehicle-bicycle crashes resulting in injuries by as much as 90%"
  • "Advance stop lines can increase the likelihood of drivers yielding to pedestrians crossing by approximately 60%"
  • "Pedestrian/raised refuge islands: can reduce vehicle-pedestrian crashes by 46%" 

SOURCE: B.C. Community road safety toolkit resource kit module 1: Protecting people who walk and cycle


  • "Protected left-turns can reduce left-turn collisions by up to 99%"

SOURCE: Halton active transportation master plan 2015: Design toolbox